Water Crisis Threatens Indonesia’s Bali
00 分钟
Water Crisis Threatens Indonesia’s Bali
Bali, Indonesia, is facing a worsening water crisis from tourism development, population growth and water mismanagement. Shortages already are affecting UNESCO World Heritage structure, food production and Balinese culture. 由于旅游业发展、人口增长和水资源管理不善,印度尼西亚巴厘岛正面临日益严重的水资源危机。短缺已经影响到联合国教科文组织世界遗产结构、粮食生产和巴厘岛文化。
Experts warn the situation will worsen if existing water control policies are not enforced across the island.
"It is no longer possible to work in the fields as a farmer," said farmer I Ketut Jata. He said the land is too dry to grow rice which he sells to provide for his family.
专家警告说,如果不在全岛执行现有的水资源控制政策,情况将会恶化。 农民 I Ketut Jata 说:“作为农民,再也不可能在田里工作了。”他说土地太干了,无法种植水稻,他卖掉这些水稻养家糊口。
Bali is in the center of Indonesia's group of islands. Bali gets its water from three main sources: lakes, rivers and groundwater. A traditional irrigation system, called the "subak", sends water through a network of waterways, dams and tunnels. 巴厘岛位于印度尼西亚群岛的中心。巴厘岛的水主要来自三个来源:湖泊、河流和地下水。一种称为“subak”的传统灌溉系统通过水道、水坝和隧道网络输送水。
The subak was named a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2012. The system is central to Balinese culture. It represents the Balinese Hindu idea of harmony between people, nature and spirituality. 苏巴克于 2012 年被联合国教科文组织列为世界遗产。该系统是巴厘岛文化的核心。它代表了巴厘岛印度教关于人、自然和灵性之间和谐相处的理念。
"This is one of the very special cases of living landscapes in Asia," said Feng Jing, who works with UNESCO in Bangkok. “这是亚洲生活景观中非常特殊的案例之一,”在曼谷与联合国教科文组织合作的冯静说。
But demand is putting severe pressure on the subak and other water resources, said Putu Bawa. He is with the Bali Water Protection program. 但 Putu Bawa 说,需求给苏巴克和其他水资源带来了巨大压力。他参与了巴厘岛水资源保护计划。
The island's population increased by more than 70 percent from 1980 to 2020, to 4.3 million people, found government data. Tourism growth has been even greater: Less than 140,000 foreign visitors came to the island in 1980. By 2019, there were more than 6.2 million foreign and 10.5 million Indonesian tourists. 政府数据显示,该岛的人口从 1980 年到 2020 年增加了 70% 以上,达到 430 万人。旅游业的增长甚至更大:1980 年,不到 14 万外国游客来到该岛。到 2019 年,外国游客超过 620 万,印度尼西亚游客超过 1050 万。
Bali's economy has done very well with tourism, but at a cost. Rice fields where the subak once ran through have been turned into golf courses and water parks. Forests that naturally collect water for the subak have been destroyed for new homes and hotels, Bawa said.
Stroma Cole is with the University of Westminster in London. She has researched tourism's impact on Bali's water supplies. Cole said the water table is also dropping because people and businesses use private wells instead of government-owned supplies. The water table is the upper level of an underground surface in which rocks or soil are always surrounded by water. Stroma Cole 在伦敦的威斯敏斯特大学工作。她研究了旅游业对巴厘岛供水的影响。科尔说,地下水位也在下降,因为人们和企业使用私人水井而不是政府所有的水源。地下水位是地下表面的上层,岩石或土壤始终被水包围。
In less than 10 years, Bali's water table has sunk more than 50 meters in some areas. Wells are becoming dry or have been damaged with salt water, especially in the island's south. 在不到10年的时间里,巴厘岛部分地区的地下水位已经下降了50多米。水井正在变得干涸或被盐水破坏,特别是在该岛的南部。
Bali does have rules, like water permits and taxes on water used. They are meant to control the island's water supplies, but there is no enforcement, Cole said. 巴厘岛确实有规定,例如用水许可证和用水税。科尔说,他们的目的是控制岛上的供水,但没有强制执行。
The serious effect of the water crisis can be seen in Jatiluwih, in northwestern Bali. The area has the island's largest rice farms. 在巴厘岛西北部的 Jatiluwih 可以看到水危机的严重影响。该地区拥有岛上最大的水稻农场。
For generations, farmers used the subak system for irrigation. But in the past 19 years, farmers have had to pump water through white plastic pipes to irrigate the fields. 几代人以来,农民都使用 subak 系统进行灌溉。但在过去的 19 年里,农民不得不通过白色塑料管道抽水灌溉田地。
Some Bali farmers say they can only get one rice harvest a year, instead of two or three because of limited water supplies, Cole's research found. That could reduce food production on the island. 科尔的研究发现,一些巴厘岛农民表示,由于水供应有限,他们一年只能收获一季水稻,而不是两三季。这可能会减少岛上的粮食产量。
When Indonesia closed its borders during the pandemic, Bali's tourism greatly dropped. Environmental activists hoped the closure would help raise water levels in the wells. 当印度尼西亚在大流行期间关闭边界时,巴厘岛的旅游业大幅下降。环保人士希望关闭水井有助于提高水井的水位。
But development across the island has continued, including a new road that activists say will further affect the subak system. New hotels, homes and other businesses are also adding to the demand. 但全岛的开发仍在继续,包括一条新道路,活动人士称这将进一步影响苏巴克系统。新的酒店、住宅和其他业务也在增加需求。
Bawa said tourism is important to Bali but there also should be better enforcement and increased monitoring to protect the island's water resources. 巴瓦说,旅游业对巴厘岛很重要,但也应该加强执法和加强监测,以保护岛上的水资源。
"We need to do this together for the sake of the survival of the island." “为了这个岛的生存,我们需要一起做这件事。”